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ACT小说可视化阅读训练(Visualizing Reading)

新航向留学考试2018-06-21 07:22:57

ACT考试中,Literary Narrative(以前称为Prose Fiction)是阅读测试中的第一篇文章。因此这篇文章的做题质量,不仅直接影响着阅读部分最终得分,还会影响后面三篇文章阅读水平的发挥。对缺少文学作品阅读经验的考生,很多培训老师建议直接跳过小说阅读。

但事实上,只要是把握住考试设计原理,掌握一些技巧,ACT文学作品部分(小说,有时候甚至包括第三篇humanity)很容易拿高分。


在这一讲里面,Peter老师专门就文学作品的要素(literary elements)和如何训练可视化阅读习惯(reading figuratively )。


  1. Literary Elements:

    Literary elements是文学作品构成的要件。因此,在考试中,阅读文学作品首先得弄明白以下几点:


    a. 视角(perspective)

    文学作品的视角从理论上讲很复杂,但是在ACT考试中,弄清楚两种视角和一些常见的表述词汇就可以了。


    第一人称,也叫主观视角,即作品以第一人称(1st person narrative),陈述者(narrator)是作品中的角色(character)之一。因此,作品的视角带有情感倾向。关键词:subjective,biased等。


    第三人称,也叫客观视角,上帝视角,即作品以第三人称叙述(3rd person narrative),陈述者知道每个角色的思想。因此,作品的视角是客观公正的。关键词:objective, impartial, unbiased, omniscient等。


    b. 角色的内在(disposition of characters)

    内在(disposition)是相对于外表(appearance)来说的,是指角色的性格、气质、喜怒哀乐等品质。ACT重点考察角色的“态度”(attitude)。


       c. 事件(events)

      ACT考试在选材的时候,比较注重故事背后的人文精神(reflection),而不像SAT那样注重故事情节和对人物的刻画。因此,小说往往先用小事件(minor events)来交代故事的背景(background information)和人物的内在(disposition),再用大事件(major event)来把读者带入,形成共鸣。


综上所述,ACT考试中,考生在文学体裁做快速阅读的时候,一定要首先搞清楚上述元素。然后重点关注下列形象化语言和态度描述。


2. 可视化阅读训练

可视化阅读(Visualizing)是小说阅读的基本功。ACT的细节题主要考察学生对形象化语言(figurative language的敏感能力。在快速阅读小说的时候,一定要关注下面两种形象化语言表达。


a. 类比结构(analogy)

类比结构包括明喻(simile)和暗喻(metaphor)


在读到"like something,as something,as if..."等这些比喻结构的时候,要在脑海中呈现画面,例如:


这一段中,作者描述夜幕降临的时候蝙蝠开始热闹起来,用”like an orchestra tuning its instruments before a concert"和"as if the ceiling came alive"两个结构描述蝙蝠在夜幕降临时分分外活跃的画面。


b.对比结构(contrast)


ACT阅读中对对比结构对考察往往比对类比结构的考察要深入一些。例如:


在这一段描写出现小蝙蝠掉落事件(event)的时候,有两种结果:一是老蝙蝠来救它们,二是我们不得不把它们送回去或暂时养起来。作者用"but on occasions"形成前后对比。


对前一种结果,作者用"enjoy a safe return"来表现出一个"肯定(positive)"的态度,而对于后一种结果,作者用“we had to..." "fortunately, this only happened once in a while"来表示一种相对"否定(negative)"的态度。


本段后面有一题:

如果能形象化地读懂作者的态度,这种题目不但得分高,而且还可以节约宝贵的时间。


练习:

下面这篇小说采用大量的形象化语言表达两种对立的立场,请重点关注类比结构和对比结构考点的命题形式。


This passage is adapted from the short story "A Prisoner in His Castle" by Curtis Longweather (© 2008 by Curtis Longweather).


1.As it relates to his friend's fear as described in the second paragraph, thenarrator's description of a volcano (lines 13-19) most serves to:

A.elaborate the friend's inner torment.
B. speculate that his friend's thoughts will be unleashed.
C. explain why the friend is unable to speak.
D. imply the friend needs to be more patient.


2.Which of the following best describes the structure of the passage?

F. Adetailed character study of two close friends by means of describing oneextended argument between them.
G. A debate about a topic during which the two main characters take equal turnsdiscussing their positions and reasons.
H. An exploration of the author's experience of his friend's speech impairmentusing their verbal and written exchanges as a primary source.
J. The depiction of a unique friendship that allows the narrator to explain hissuccesses and struggles as a lawyer.


3.The erupting volcano simile refers to a dust cloud and a lava flow to portray:

A.intuition and logic.
B. simplicity and complexity.
C. instinct and deliberation.
D. vocal and non-vocal expression.


4.Based on the passage, which of the following statements most clearly portraysthe respective attitudes of the narrator and his friend?

F.The friend is argumentative and cynical; the narrator is jaded and indifferent.
G. The friend is scornful and depressed; the narrator is apologetic andidealistic.
H. The friend is anxious and despondent; the narrator is sympathetic andencouraging.
J. The friend is shy and reclusive; the narrator is outgoing and nonchalant.


5.In the passage, the narrator most nearly describes Cyrano de Bergerac as:

A.someone who was afraid of losing the love of his life.
B. unable to produce any sound of his own due to a physical condition.
C. someone who had reason to communicate indirectly with a woman.
D. too caught up in the emotions of love to be able to describe them.


6.Which of the following statements about pirates is best supported by thenarrator's characterization of them?

F.They have no rules of conduct that they must follow.
G. They succeed by means of confusing their enemies.
H. They are not accountable to anyone other than themselves.
J. They recognize the superior value of written language.


7.It can be most strongly inferred from the passage that the friend values whichof the following in vocal speech?

A.Meaningful expression
B. Proper mechanics
C. Rich vocabulary
D. Clever humor


8.According to the passage, the friend is worried he may:

F.say something embarrassing if he speaks.
G. grow exasperated from his inability to vocalize thoughts.
H. be damaging the narrator's chances of courtroom success.
J. not be clever enough to compose a symphony of thought.


9.As it is used in (line 68), the word puppet most nearly means:

A.entertainer.
B. conversationalist.
C. toy.
D. mouthpiece.


10.Based on the narrator's account, the friend's reaction to watching the narratorduring legal proceedings is:

F.appreciative and yearning.
G. confused and hopeless.
H. awestruck and overbearing.
J. bitter and resentful.