Examinations have a longer history in China than in any other country, yet it is today an issue around in which controversy flourishes. At each stage of their school lives children are faced with exams: exams to enter junior middle school, senior middle school, vocational school, colleges and universities. As a result of having constantly to think of these hurdles facing them children find themselves under constant pressure, unable to take time off from studying exam-oriented subjects to relax with friends or to develop other interests. Within school the concentration on exam success leads to the neglect of courses which are not central to the examinations and a method of teaching and learning which emphasizes training the ability to do well in tests but neglects developing the ability to think creatively.
Despite such criticisms the examination system still has its defenders. Without it, they argue, how can we test students' abilities and evaluate the effectiveness of teachers and schools? They believe that they provide the only objective way of selecting students and reduce the exercise of unfair back-door practices to gain advantage for children on the basis of influence or corruption. Examinations are also felt to offer the impetus to students to master their subject in a way in which they otherwise might not. "While too much anxiety can be a bad thing, a little anxiety can stimulate students to learn better than if left without any test to pass," says Li Jie, a leading advocate of the value of testing. "I can remember things now which give me great pleasure which I doubt I would have learned at the time if I had not had to do so for the examinations."
57. Which of the following statements about examinations in China is correct?
[A] People can make money out of examinations.
[B] Only students of today have to take examinations.
[C] Students have to learn more about history than about any other subjects.
[D] People have different opinions concerning the value of examinations.
58. What is a possible result if students pay too much attention to examinations?
[A] Students neglect those exam-oriented subjects.
[B] Students are unable to relax with friends or to develop other interests.
[C] Teachers neglect the training of the students' ability to do well in tests.
[D] Students only pay attention to the development of their ability to think creatively.
59. Which of the following has NOT been mentioned as the advantage of examinations?
[A] Examinations are the only objective way of selecting students.
[B] Examinations are the only objective way to eliminate the problem of corruption.
[C] Examinations can tell us that too much anxiety can be a bad thing.
[D] Examinations can better stimulate students to study.
60. According to the passage, why are some people against exams?
[A] They are meaningless. [B] They will make students learn something useless.
[C] They are believed to cause stress for the students. [D] They are not related to the reality of life.
61. Which of the following is an acceptable summary of the organization of this passage?
[A] Discussing a problem in education. [B] Refuting a long held opinion.
[C] Persuading people to believe an idea. [D] Presenting a controversial issue and arguments from both sides.
57. D 58. B 59. C 60. C 61. D